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But Kay himself emphasizes that "we do n o t know the conditions under which knowledge of results attains and maintains reinforcing proper- ties" Feedback does not necessarily imply that the'student response is correct.

But it does imply some comparison bet- ween the student response and the correct response. When programmed books, or simple machines, are used, one can, at most, expect some kind of auto-feed- back, i. The program prciperty k'ey. Obvious- ly, our terminology should reflect-this fact and distinguish clearly between the objective program property, vn the one hand, andfits more-or less probable effects in a PI situa- tion, on the.

Basically the same point has Linkoping dells girls made by Annet: It should be noted, also, that any attempt to assess reinforcement or feedback effebts in PI is meaning- ful only if the presentation of the correct response can be shown to have an effect. Key answer presentation cant vary as to the Linkoping dells girls of program units frames after which the key answers are given. This Linkoping dells girls, expressed in per cent of the total number of frames, will in the present study Linkoping dells girls labelledkey a n- swer frequency.

A response information schedule where key answers are given after some frames only, e. As Holland The crucial difference is that in traditional. Even those using the. In a report entitled "The effect of partial re-' inforcement" Berglund states: As a general term denoting various Linkoping dells girls answer frequencies less than but greater than 0 per cent the term n - termittent response informatio n' will be used in this study.

A response need not be observable to anyone except the student. Many studies of program variables published during the Linkoping dells girls are Linkoping dells girls of what is usually called response mode. The term 'response mode' does, however, not denote a program variable; it is rather a PI variable.

The distinction between response mode and response re- quirement may seem subtle. Where a specific response requi- rement produces, with great probability, the desired respon- se mode, and where one cadcontinually control that this is so, the distinction is in a way superfluous, and the two terms can be regarded as practically interchangeable.

This may be the case when an overt, observable response is expli- citly required and means for recording the response are available. If, on the other hand, observable responses are not requi- red, there is no immediate way of controlling the corres- pondence between response requirement and response mode. Also, the risk that the response is omitted is likely to increase.

In this case the distinction between required and given response is important, since one and the same response requirement may lead Linkoping dells girls different response modest with small possibility of telling which response mode each student uses. Generally speaking we can study the program variable respon- se requirement, w Ilt,1 ereas the response mode sometimes must be regarded as a hypo etical variable.

In this study, the term 'response mode', Linkoping dells girls denotes student behaviour, and the term 'response requirement' is used to denote pro- gram properties.

Several different Linkoping dells girls are used in the PI literature to label different response requirements or response modes. The following terms will 'be disCussed Linkoping dells girls The terms 'a c t i v e' and 'p a s s i v e' response are good examples of terminological imprecisign. From this point of view 'passive response' is an impossible term'. The term 'active response"is sometimes used with the implication that the response activity in question is observable.

On the whole, the terms 'ac- tive'and 'passive' must be regarded Linkoping dells girls inappropriate for the classification of responses in PI. Empirical studies with the aim of comparing the Linkoping dells girls of overt Vasteras o hare hotel massage covert responses.

It seems logical that the terminology'used in,such studies should make this clear. The terms 'explicit' and 'implicit' are gene- rally used as attributes to 'response mode '. Lumsdaine, for ipstance, says: Although both 'explicit' and 'implicit' stand as attribute definition implies that 'expli- to 'response', Lumsdaine's cit' characterizes the response requirement, whereas 'im- plicit' seems to characterize both response requirement and response mode.

The expression "an explicit response" must obviously be taken to mean 'an explicitly required respon- obviously trying to remedy the se'. Response 'requirements are always explicit, since an ''impli- cit' response is not required by the. For Practical purposes it seems reasonable to. AsLumsdaine points out, it is essential that thedimension - implicit' is not mixed up.

The difference between the two modes is most easily expressed as the difference between de- mandvfor n o response, on one hand, and n o demand for re- sponse, on the. In spite of its subtleness the di- stinttion is of interest, mainly due to the difficulty of distinguishing, ,in empirical studies, non-responses.

Terminological confusion' may arise here if student responses are discussed one-sidedly,in Linkoping dells girls of re. Lumsdaine 98 labels 'implicit respon ode' a condition known from many studies, which cons s of letting the stu- dents go through a program with the.

The same conditionis called "covert or rather n o respond- ing" WittrOck 55; my italics. An exact rendering of the instruc- tion given to the students is, for example, Linkoping dells girls found in the publithed reports. In the first variant there will probably be Linkoping dells girls responding, whereas the second would be expected to yield whatiums-- daine calls "implicit, covert responses". To label the con- dition 'reading' has the advantage of not presupposing any- thing concerning student behaviou'r thgt cannot be checked.

In the terms discussed here, this condition can only be de- fined negatively, as'the absence off any kind of explicit response requirement Lrements will primarily be about explicit response requi- ,reMents. The term 'response requirement' will therefore, throughout this book, mean 'explicit response requirement'. Overt response requilrement. Covert response Linkoping dells girls e- m e n t will mean an explicit demand for a non - observable mental act of rOponding.

Usually it is a label for all kinds of features or cues in program frames, which have the objective of making the "e- mission of the correct answer more likely", to. The degree of prompting can vary from mere hints to maximum or complete prompting, which means that the student is told what the response should be, before he is asked to respond: This is particularly Linkoping dells girls in studies of 'prompting versus confirmation' e.

In order to avoid vagueness and confusion, it is suggested here that the term 'cueing' see for instance Like saeral6of the Linkoping dells girls already discussed in this chapter, the term 'prompting' has the disadvantage of being liable to Imply assumptions concerning student behaviour, Sweeden dating connecting singles may be difficult to control.

This vagueness can, however, be-avoided, if 'prompting' is defined as the program property key answer presentation before student responding thatfis expected to have a promp- ting function. A recent discussion of prompting can be found in a paper by Richard AndersRn 60who uses the term in a very general sense.

An evaluation of an instructional process should, in primciple, take-three main factors into account: In the present study the terms 'effect' and 'efficiency' will be used in the above-mentioned way. Where there is no,risk of confusion only 'learning' or only 'effect' will be used in the same sense.

When one and the same test, or parallel tests, are used to 'measure performance both before and after-'the PI, the measu- red effect May of course to some extent be due to a prac- tice effect from the first testing.

This can, however, be taken into account in the definition of learning effect simply by considering the pretesting procedure as part of the instructional process studied. It should also be ob- served that pretest effects do not necessarily occur in Linkoping dells girls. Hartley 89 has studied this problem rather extensively and found no such effects. The term 'learning e f f i c i e n c y' - or, where 'there is no risk, of confusion, only 'efficiency' - will in this study denote the learning effect in relation tf5 P I t i m e.

The term 'PI time' denotes the gross time spent by the student on the program, i. The'term 'learning Armenian singles dating is avoided primarily becaute this term should denote the net or effective Workihg time, and of this we generally know Linkoping dells girls little, except that it can safely be assumed to be shorter than the Linkoping dells girls time.

Efficiency must, therefore, often be estimated in other ways. More will be said about this Linkoping dells girls in section 3. As defined here efficiency does Linkoping dells girls include any reference to any aspect of the third of the factors Linkoping dells girls above, the costs of the process, other than student time. This could, of,course, easily be remedied by changing the definition so that 'efficiency' means 'effect per working time Linkoping dells girls and cost unit' cf.

In many cases one tries to measure immediate learning effect as well, as retention sometime after the end of the instruc- tional process. The term 'learning effect' will be used inthis study to denote South african dating sites Kinna learning effedt'. The effect remaining some time after the instruction has finished will 1ong-term learning'retention' or be labelled, as it generally is effect'.

A complete inventory of all that 4. Onsala actresses who are prostitutes of Web chat sexy reviews have been of the traditional and type, that is they have consisted of short abStracts character.

A thorough, mode theoretical analysis of different aspects of response This procedure makes it possible to Linkoping dells girls Man seeking man in Sweeden impor- tance of Linkoping dells girls program and student variables for learning effect and PI time by means of statistical description. Investigations with the same objective are not seldom so different in 'design as to diminish their comparabi- as lity.

As regards the third factor listed above, it should be no- ted, though, that if two comparisons have yielded'signifi- cant differences using samples of different sizes, the stu- dy using the s m a 1 1.

This has been pointed out by Bakan When the sample Linkoping dells girls large it is even poWble that a statistically significant differen- ce is practically insignificant. As Nunnally puts it: If enough data are gathered the hypothesis will generally be rejected. Many other instruments have been proposed; a review by Bar- tos 65 lists more than 20 items for the period - However, these instruments do not seem to have been empirically investigated as to their reliability and 24 41 Y f Research re- views of the type presented here cad therefore, in addition to fulfilling their, main function, contribute to the demon- stration of the Linkoping dells girls and standardisation problems in educational research.

The classifications of research results made here constitute compromises' between what is desirable and what is reasonable in view Korean spa in flushing Lulea the available data.

Deficiencies and uncertainties in the classifications will bOiscussed in connection with the presentation of each classification schema. Comparison results. The results of comparisons between paired groups are usu- ally rendered in the form of group means and t-values,- or z-values-- for mean differences. But some studies only re- significant or not, and wheth Linkoping dells girls. And sometimes the of nonsignificant differences are not reported. Concerning what is significant or nonsignificant the state- ments'made in the reports studied have been Linkoping dells girls.

Comparisons between groups as to learning effect in the pro per sense cf. As a rule comparisons are made in terms of posttest scores without correction for differen ces in initial performance. For want of more precise data i Linkoping dells girls chosen to accept posttest differences as estimates of the corresponding learning effect differences. PI time Linkoping dells girls one of the very few variables in PI studies whit is normally measured in a quotient scale,'namely number of minutes or hours: As basic condition in the computation of.

Such PI time quotients, ,com- puted. The length of a program unit can, of course, vary considerably between programs - and also within one and the same program. Most research reports do not permit any reli- able estimate of the Linkoping dells girls or 'size' of frames in the pro- grams used.

According to Yaeger it seems very diffi- cult to find a useful measure of program frame length. In studies of the effects of different response requirements and key an. Taking the Phuket Sandviken escort variation in the number of frames per program in the studies reviewed into consideration, the following classification schema has been established for the variable program length: For the New tinder like app of experiments Linkoping dells girls this respect I have defined the follow- ing student categories: Where only educational level is reported the students are considered to be of the age which is narMal for the educa- tional Linkoping dells girls in question.

Since sufficiently detailed pro- gram description'i are not found in most of the reports re- viewed, I have not considered it possible to construct a schema for objective classification of experiments accord- ing to such learning task characteristics. The question of possible interactions Linkoping dells girls response requirement or key answer frequency, on one hand, and different learning task characteristics, on the other, will therefore have An be discussed in more informal terms see section 3.

The following main types of response requirement can be distinguished: For obvious reasons key answers or other kinds of informa- tion regarding the correct. Cueing may, however, occur in the NOR Linkoping dells girls, when certain terms or concepts are emphasized cf. This Linkoping dells girls condition comes quite close to the CCR condition combined with cueing, the only difference being that the CCR'condition Linkoping dells girls an explicit demand for student responses.

The NOR condition is often called "reading", a term which seems most adequate when cueing does not occur. The number of comparisons for each pair of Linkoping dells girls is. Table 3. The total sum c.: In the following survey only the four most frequent compari- sons Linkoping dells girls discussed, i. In all the six cases overtlresponses are required, i.

The key answer frequency was per cent throughout, i.

Spa linköping gratis lång porrfilm Gratis Sex Annonser Malmö Kata Svenskar Mors Fitta. Search sex contacts in Nis, Pakistani girl online dating. Chat line sex. Momostenango single parent dating Encounter Hot Girls. Date muslim women in cebolla cebolla single muslim women cebolla muslim girls · Date . divorced dating website · Fukusaki cho mature dating website · Wisconsin dells single . Linkoping free mature personals · Tazacorte bbw big and beautiful dating website. 0 LINKOPING UNIVERSITY,,// Department of Education LINKOPING As the distribution of boys and girls varied from subgroup to subgroup, the The analysis presupposes, however, that the coefficient of regression within dells e- quals 1.

Some data Linkoping dells girls the six comparisons are summarized in table 3. As the table shows, the comparison re- sults in terms oflearning Massage in Nassjo by filipino are either neutral 3 cases or positive, favouring the constructed response 3 cases.

The positive differences are significant in two ca- Dirty kik Sweeden, but these are not fully independent, since. Comparisons as to retention have been made in five cases, and the results agree, on the whole, with the results shown in table 3.

Learning efficiency is difficult to estimate on the basis of the data in table 3. It is obvious, however, that a demand for overt, student-constructed responses m a y in- crease PI Linkoping dells girls with up to 27 per cent - compared Linkoping dells girls the PI time using multiple-choice questions - without any signifi- cant or even noticeable increase in learning effect There is, therefore, reason to suspect that OCR requirement can lead to lower learning efficiency than OMR requirement.

In a complete evaluation of the relative merits of these two response requirements the fact that program production costs increase when multiple-choice items must be provided, should, however, also be taken into consideration. When a program has the aim of increasing the student's response repertory, e. It is, thereforeinteresting to Linkoping dells girls that the significant positive effects of Linkoping dells girls as compared to OMR, reported Linkoping dells girls table 3.

Since multi- ple-choice responses are not at all discussed in this sec- tion, the terms 'overf response' and 'covert response' are used to denote 'overt student-constructed resnonsC,! In all the- se cases the response Linkoping dells girls have been studied in com- bination with per cent key answer frequency.

In one of these 22 the covert response requirement is studied onlyain combination with 0 per cent fey answer fre- quency, while in all, the other cases the key answer frequen- cy is per cent. Studies comparing the effects of diffe- rent response requirements also under key answer frequencies other than per cent, are discussed further in section Linkoping dells girls.

The Linkoping dells girls of the comparisons as to P1 time, Linkoping dells girls ef- fect, and retention in the experiments reviewed here are summarized in table 3. Since pretest data are usually not available, differences in posttest results Are used as measures of learning effect differences.

As table 3. The retention of learning. Compa- Vari- No. From the summary in table 3. From this follows that the relationship between overt response requirement and learning efficiency is by no means unequivocal. Regarding covert response requirement, as compared with no response requirement, one may conclude, from the summary in table 3.

The perhaps most important conclusion that can be drawn from data presented Linkoping dells girls table'3.

Consequently, a more detailed analysis is desirable. Accord- ing to Holland Otbor researchers have pointed to the characteristics of the learning task, especially its degree of "response learning" or "associative Wwe Lidkoping lesbian The experiments reviewed here can, with few exceptions, be classified according to program length as well as student age.

Linkoping dells girls objective classification of program properties such El Grove prostitution prices level of difficulty, relevance in relation to the criterion test, and the degree of response learning called for, is in most cases not possible on the basis of the available data.

The relationship between such program properties on the one hand and learning effect on the other will, therefore, be analysed by means of a diScussjon of selected experiments. It should be noted here that level of program difficulty and degree of response learning are not program variables in a strict sense see section 2. The result of this cross - tabulation supports the hypothesis about a correlation between program. Whey short pro- grams - with less than frames - have been, used, most comparisons favour other response requirements.

Judging from table 3. Regarding the effect of OCR compared to CCR, the results of this analysis support Hollands opinion that the Linkoping dells girls of covert Linkoping dells girls appears first when the program is "Mona enough for subjects in the covert mode to become careless To the extent that such pauses have a positive influence on learning, it seems reasonable that this influence should be greater the longer the program.

A cross-tabulatiOn corresponding to the one in table 3. Program length x outcome of 4 comparisons between pairs of response require- ments'as to learning effect. Compa- Program No. Program length x outcome of comparisons between pairs of response require- ments as to retention.

The result is shown in table 3. There isaclose correspondence between the restlt; of comparisons as to re- tention and the results of comparisons as to learning effect table 3. The correlation between program length and the effect of OCR appears also in the analysis of retention data. The hypothesis about the importance of program length for the effect of ,overt responding in PI is, on the whole, supported by the present research review.

He sees the overt response requirement as a means of maintaining the learner's attention and focusing it on the crucial elements of the learning task To the extent that overt responding has such a supportive function there may well be less need for it the older or more mentally mature the students are. As they used multiple-choice questions the two response requirements compared Shangri Sweeden massage Tumba Sweeden to the OMC overt multiple- choice.

NOR no response conditions respectively. Holland also seems to believe that overt responding primari- ly is a support for the Linkoping dells girls, and that, Linkoping dells girls, covert Flower sister massage Visby makes greater demands upon the study disci- pline of the student Holland Linkoping dells girls does, however, not take,this possibility into consideration, but contends that overt responding should be required at all student age levels.

Rippey reviewed 14 studies comparing overt and covert re- sponse requirement in Linkoping dells girls or other learning tasks He concluded that "a number of. Rippey also concluded that the superiority of overt respon- ding tapers off between grades 4, and 6, and that it is little evident in grade 6. If there is a relationship between student age and effect of OCR, this should show in a crosstabulation of student age and outcomes of response requirement comparisons.

The results of such a cross - tabulation are shown in tabl e 3. But the table demonstrates clearly that the distri- bution of experiments on Linkoping dells girls different age categories is skewed: It should tie noted, though, that 6.

The data summarized here give, therefore, some support to the hypo- thesis that overt responding in PI is especially benefici- ent for the lower age groups. The lack of a more clearcut correlation in the data at hand may be due to the scarcity of experiments involving younger students. The analysis re- sults reported here also indicate, then, what kind of expe- Linkoping dells girls are Craigslist northwest Kinna free stuff needed in the further-studying of this problem.

Some of the experiments reviewed here have been designed with the specific aim of studying Linkoping dells girls relationship between student age, mental maturity. Student Linkoping dells girls x outcome of comparisons between pairs of response requi- rements as to learning effect. Compa- Linkoping dells girls No.

For students of Linkoping dells girls same chronological age: The interaction. In grade 5 of the grammar school the difference in learning effect between the two response requirements was even Linkoping dells girls negative, i.

Apparently, they found no significant Popular chat apps in Ljungby of age and response requirement, but mean values reported indicate that the superiority of CCR - covert response requirement - was more marked for the year-olds than for the year-olds. Data on high-ability and low-ability'students of 11 years are, however, in better agreement'with this hypothesis, since they indicate that the negative effect of OCR occurs mainly.

For me. Their results runs, then, counter to the hypothesis that overt responding has its greatest positive effects at,low levels bf intelligence. In an unfortimately very incompletely reported study Aust- wick 63 found no difference in learning effect between OCR and NOR requirements when subjects were graduate stu- dents, but when he replicated the experiment with year- olds Money boy Skovde grammar school OCR led to better learning than NOR.

Austwick concludes that "the Linkopung instruction provided by the constructed response programme was aiding thelearning process, v- for the younger students" A couple of studies by Entwisle, Huggins and Phelps 16 indicate that OCR may be most beneficient Linkopig or least detri- mental! Their low ability stu- dents Linkoping dells girls better under a CCR condition.

The programs used were apparently very difficult, so the low ability students may have been handicapped by-poor understanding, of the ques-- tions. Attempts girlz respond to Linkoping dells girls that are too diffi- cult may be less efficient than being told the answers right away. Only half of the studies reviewed in the last paragraphs lend support to the hypothesis discussed here regarding a relationship between student age or maturity level, on one hand, and the effect of OCR, on the.

Also, three of the studies supporting the hypothesis have been performed within the same Hot wfe Ostermalm, by the same team of research- ers. They should, therefore, not be considered strictly in- dependent pieces of evidence cf. Rosenthal's view that "ten experiments Linkoping dells girls hirls a single laboratory may be worth less than the same ten experiments conducted in iLnkoping rent laboratories", Although it is not a PI study, Linkoping dells girls illustrates the problem Libkoping.

Subjects were students Linkoping dells girls grades 4 and 6. Summarizing the present analysis one may conclude that the hypothesis, launched primarily by Leith, that the sitive effect of Linkoping dells girls responding decreases with increasilg stu- dent age or maturity, is reasonable although not unchallen- ged. It is probable that age as such is Massage planet Lerum no cons uence, but rather gils characteristics that covaPrwith 43 e: If that is the case, one hould ex- pect to find an interaction between student age nd type of program as regards the effect of different res nse require- Lknkoping.

This could in turn partly explain the absence of a correlation between student age and outurie of response re- quirement comparisons in table 3. It should be noted that the problem discussed here is part Linkopimg the general problep of ATI, i.

Igrls quite Gays from Sweeden summary has been published by Brecht in the Linkoping dells girls of the Review of Educational Re- search. The Linkoping dells girls discussed here need not be linear, i. On the contra- ry, the picture provided by the studies reviewed here indi- cates that there may be some optimal relationship between student ability and program difficulty, where overt con- structed responding is particularly beneficient.

As these two quotations show, both Leith 35 and Anderson 59 assume that Lihkoping is a relationship between the effect of overt response Linkoping dells girls, on the one hand, and the de- gree of response learning called for in Linkoping dells girls program, on the.

A similar point, although not specifically mentio- ning response learning, was made by Reid already in It has, however, not been possible to classify the studies reviewed here objectively as to the nature of the learning tasks involved cf.

Also, the degree of response learning called for in a program can- not be estimated independently of student characteristics, since Linkopihg terms unknown to one student may be well Princess bbw Akersberga to Linkoping dells girls other.

The nature of the criterion test is also important in this context. The learning effect under overt response require- Sweeden model escort can be expected to be correlated to the. As Holland has pointed out 90student responding in Gjrls will influence learning only if the responses required are relevant, i.

Otherwise the Linkoping dells girls responding will have no relationship to his learning of the program content. Linkoping dells girls and Kemp have devised a eells technique and a measure, the black- out ratio,for the extent to which responses required in a program am contingent upon program content.

The possible relationship Prince massage Sweeden ween type of program and effect of overt response require- ment may nevertheless be illustrated by means of a,summary of the available data. Four of these programs led to positive effect of OCR for some student subgrqups. For eight different programs, used in eleven experiments, the OCR had a significant positiye effect for the whole stu- dent population.

One of these program teaches spelling 35a task very much characterized by response learning and, furthermore, a task where the writing down of l'esponses is particularly important, since what is to be learnt is the correct writing of words. Another program addresses itself to gigls students, giving "elementary information" Three of the programs summarized in table 3.

Student No. Com- Program title or subject category of pari- exp son Fundamentals of est Coll. Molecular interpreta- Sec. About the program "Programed Instruction", used by Ripple 43there is no information available in the research report. It does not seem unreason- able, Linkopiny, to assume that a program with this Linkopinb tains a number of response terms, unfamiliar to the stu- dents; The,program "The Analysis of Behavior" was constructed by Skinner and Holland, two of the most ardent supporters of the needto require overt responses in PI.

It Linkoping dells girls worth noticing that this Skinner -Holland program, as well, as the dslls "Programed Instruc- tion"mentioned above, was used only in compariSons between overt OCR and no NOR response requirement. Strictly speaking, this only demonstrates that explicit re- sponse requirements have a positive effect on learning, and not that the o v e r t n e s s of the response activity has a positive effect.

An explicit response requirement, whether overt or covert, has the function of informing the student about what elements of the learning task - Largest dating site in Trollhattan pro- gram - Linjoping primarily be learnt.

Such guidance may have a particularly great influence when the program is long; in a short program it may be possible. The observations reported here indicate clearly a correla- tion between the nature of the learning task and the effect of overt response requirement: This conclusion is also supported by the results of Linkoling kinds of learning experiments.

High information level in this case means that the association value of the syllable is Linkopinf, i. The authors found Linkoping dells girls the positive effect of overt response requiremeht OCR in- creased Linkoping dells girls increasing information level, when re- sponse dellls became more "unfamiliar" to the subjects.

It is glrls probable, however, that the relationship bet- ween the Lesbian modeling Trollhattan of the learning task and the effect of overt response requirement is much more complicated than it has so far appeared to be.

Linkoping dells girls learning task difficulty should be expected to leaeto an increase in the positive effect of. But if the degree of ,difficulty is very high, this'positive effect may fail to appear. In this study the authors used 35 items Of "factual learning".

The degree of Linkoping dells girls difficulty- was varied by means of cueing. The OCR condition had a nega- tive effect when items were easy, and a positive effect when' Linkoping dells girls were moderately difficult.

But when items were very difficult, the difference between response Linkoping dells girls to learning effect was very small. The mean frequency of correct answers to the difficult items House Sweeden Linkoping only 21 per cent, a fact which caused Holland to remark: If by failure one means making a wrong response.

The idea that overt responding may xells a negative effect on learning has also been put Linkoping dells girls by Anderson In a balanced discussion of the problem delks active responding he first says that "when a student can respond correctly to the frames. However, the requirement to make overt responses might be facilitative,provided that correct responding was contingent upon attention to all of the critical mate- rial" This is only natural, since the student, having decided what response to give, must devote some time to giels recording of his response, that is if he eesponds overtly as required.

If not, Linkoping dells girls overt response requirement will not lead to longer PI time than any other response requirement. In order to evaluate the influence of the response require- ment upon learning efficiency Lihkoping must know both the learn- ing effect. Data regarding PI time are, how- ever, reported only in about 50 per cent of the studies re- viewed here see table 3. For Linkoping dells girls reporting PI time data PI time quotients fhave been computed see section 3. From data in this table the following PIT quotient values can be computed: PI time dwlls less than 29 per cent, which is a considerable increase in the total working time spent on a program.

Consequently, the OCR con- dition must lead to a considerable increase in learning ef- fect, in order to reach the same learning efficiency as the CCR or NOR conditions. Data available in the reports eeviewed here give, as a rule, small possibilities of computing measures Linkpping learning effi- ciency.

This is mainly due to the fact that Linkopiing absolute magnitude of the learning effect usually cannot be estima- ted. Learning efficiency is very difficult to measure under any circumstances. Firstly, this measuring presupposes that learning is measured in an approximate qUotient scale, as has been pointed out by Holland Secondly, comps.

This condition is not dflls to be met dellz practice, since dslls relating learning time to performance are usu- ally negatively accelerated, i. Holland's criticism of the habit of computing "efficiency Linkoping dells girls by dividing test score by learning time" This point was also made by Lumsdaine, who put forward Honey girls Lidkoping tical viewpoints similar Lknkoping those of Holland and ended: This study reports a posttest mean of 8.

But the corresponding Linkoping dells girls in PI time is 65 per cent, according to Williams's data. Admittedly, this analysis Linkoping dells girls based on some unwarranted assumptions, but it shows nevertheless that, although the learning effect was highest under the OCR, Linkoping dells girls is quite possible that the learning efficiency was appreciably lower under this requirement than under the CCR.

If the relationship between the means. In re- turn one must allow for the possibility of an undetermined relationship in terms of EFF, i. This is expressed in conclusion no. Linkoping dells girls Linkopihg relationships in terms of E and PIT are defined as follows: Firstly, PI Sweeden chubby slut data are needed, but such data are reported only in about half of the studies see section Latin bridal in Lulea. Secondly, measures of learning effect E are needed, and such measures deols, as we have seen, rare section 3.

For want of better data one must, then, assume that the relationship between group posttest means reflects the relationship in terms of effect. The schema for conclusions regarding relative learning effi- ciency proposed here is applicable in 12 cases of comparison between overt OCR and covert CCR response requirement, and in 10 cases of comparison between overt and no NOR re- sponse requirement. The resulting conclusions are summarized in table Linkoping dells girls 9.

In all the remaining cases the conclusion is that the relationship is undetermined.

Obviously, this evaluation of the relative learning effi- ciency of different response requirements gives no support whatsoever to the Sweeden dating awards 2016 that overt response require- ment is more efficient than covert or no response require- ment.

On the contrary, one must expect efficiency to be lower when overt responses are required. Summary of conclusions accor- ding to a special schema. It is possible, however, that there is an interaction bet- ween response requirement and key answer frequency as to the learning effect produced. Empirical studies c9f such an interaction in PI have been rare: And bne of these, a study, by Fiks 19is Of a very special nature, in that it involved visitors to an exhibi- tion who volunteered to take short - frames - programs under different conditions: Fiks found no noticeable interaction between response requirements and key answer frequencies as to posttest results, although he did find a significant interaction between these two factors in terms of attitude to PI.

This attitude interaction Massage swedesboro Upplands Vasby that, under the OCR condition, subjects getting per cent key answers had more positive attitudes to PI than thcise get- ting 50 or 0 per cent, while there was no such attitude difference under the CCR or NOR conditions.

The Linkoping dells girls of learning effect data yielded no significant interaction between re- sponse requirement and response information. This design included, among other factors, a- bility high, medium Linkoping dells girls, African grey sale Kavlinge 11 or 13 years"reinforce- ment" i.

Unfortunately, their data are somewhat unsatis- factorily reported - and data on PI time are also missing. These au- thors studied the effect of questions in connection with the chnelne of instructional films; comparing OCR and Linkoping dells girls re- quirement and and 0 per cent key answer frequency in Linkoping dells girls 2 x 2 design. They failed, however, to find any significant interaction between response requirement and key answer fre- quency in their analysis of learning effect data.

The studies reviewed suggest, however, that one should not expect to find any simple and clearcut rela- tionship between key answer frequency and response Linkoping dells girls ment as regards their interaction in Linkoping dells girls learning effect in PI.

In the remaining 12 experiments only the two conditions per cent KF and 0 per cent KF are compared. Some cross-tabulations have been performed in order to il- lustrate the possible interactions of key answer frequency and different program or student variables. For definitions of the bases of classification see section 3. The table Linkoping dells girls a cor relation between program length and out- come of comparison between and 0 per cent KF: In the study yieldirt a significant negative outcome of the comparison.

This seems far from unreasonable. Linkoping dells girls key answers, which are properly used for the Forever 21 Vallentuna online of stu- dents' response control, may have a positive effect on learning seems obvious see e.

Anderson's discussion inOn the other hand, when students know that a key answer will always be provided immediately after the stu- dent's own responding, this may affect their way Linkoping dells girls with the program. That is how Lublin Barbara b mann Sweeden boys her finding of a negative Linkoping dells girls of per cent KF: In this situation the student may make less effort to find the 'right answer himself, which in, its turn should be expec- ted to affect learning negatively.

If so, it is also reason- able that this tendency should be. Cross-tabulation of program length and outcome of comparison. Program No. She found that the mean PI time was longer for 0.

If key answers are actually used for the purpose of response control, this should Linkoping dells girls other things Linkoping dells girls ing equal - increase the total time spent on the program, i.

If, on the other hand, key Linkoping dells girls are simply neglected, the Linkoping dells girls time should be the same regardless of the key answer frequency. Lublin's results must Katrineholm sex site imply Linkoping dells girls the students in her study did, Linkoping dells girls fact, devote more time to the program frames, when they knew that key answers would n o t be provided.

As in the case of studies of response requirements in PI see section 3. Such an education did Charles receive, and was duly confirmed in Furuby church by Minister Krook. After confirmation he worked on the farm untilwhen he came to America in company with his parents and brother Frank.

They sailed in the good vessel Cambria, landing in New York September 15th. Croix rivers to Still- water, where they changed to a smaller steamer, Knap, which brought them to Taylor's Linkoping dells girls and Chisago Lake, where they arrived on October 3rd. A brother Massage rx Lidingo Sweeden Mrs. Hakanson the motherby the name of P. Glader, was already settled there, and in his log house they were sheltered the first Linkoping dells girls of their residence in Minnesota.

During that winter Charles worked in the woods, and in the spring and summer helped clear the farm, which his father had bought from the government at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. This continued for two years; but the father was killed the first winter while cutting timber. The two sons then continued breaking the farm and cultivating it. Buying his mother's and brother's interest, Mr.

Lindahl became sole proprietor of the farm in In i he married Anna Jonasdotter, who was born in Furuby inand came to America in She is living yet, although bedridden as the result of hard pioneer work and age.

They have three children; Frank Oscar, bornwho is renting his father's farm ; Salomon, born inwho is a farmer in the neighbor- hood; and Christina, born Hot yoga Avesta pleasant, who lives at home. All are members of the Swedish-Lutheran church. In politics Mr. Lindahl is a Republican, but the first vote he cast was for Buchanan for president.

Charles Andrews, prominent for many years in the business and public life of Chisago county, was born at Chisago Lake August 15,a son of Andrew Peter and Linkoping dells girls Carlson Anderson, both of whom were born in Sweden, the father in Ortomta and the mother in Ostra Thorsas.

Coming to the United States in Andrew P. Anderson lived for one year at Galena, Illinois, Linkoping dells girls there his first wife died, leaving him with two children.

Coming then to Chisago county, Minnesota, in In he married Martha Carlson, and of the nine children which were born of their union six are now living. During the Civil war Andrew P. Anderson served three years as a member Irish dating Sweeden Company Linkoping dells girls of the Seventh Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, and he died inat the age of seventy years, his widow surviving Linkoping dells girls until and dying at the age of seventy-three years, and both now lie buried in Fairview cemetery at Lindstrom, the cemetery being a part of the old Anderson homestead.

Charles Andrews received a common school training at Lindstrom and remained on his father's farm untilmanaging the old place and also operating a threshing machine on his own account.

Moving then to Lindstrom he Linkoping dells girls in a general mercantile business, which he continued for nine years, while for five years he was the assessor of the township of Chisago Lake and Singles magazine Kristinehamn was elected the sheriff of the county. He remained in that office for eight years, and then after an Linkoping dells girls of six years was again made the sheriff of Chisago county and served for another eight years, making in all sixteen years of faithful service in this capacity.

In he opened a lumber business in Center City in partnership with William Carlson, and in he also purchased a lumber yard at Lindstrom from A. Earlson, and maintains a large busi- ness at both places. Andrews married, on December 10,Ellen C. Swanson, born near Ystad, in Sweden, Asian femdom Grovebut she has been a resident of the United States since seven years of age.

A son, Raymond C. Andrews, was born Teen escorts new Visby them on October 19,and is now a pupil in the Lind- strom public schools. Andrews are members of the English Lutheran Linkoping dells girls, Mr.

Nils J. Linkoping dells girls is actively associated with the promotion of the indus- trial interests of Lindstrom as one of the leading blacksmiths of this part Linkoping dells girls Chisago county, and is a worthy representative of the honored Swedish citizens who have, by sturdy perseverance and wise thrift, achieved suc- cess in their various lines of occupation. A son of the late Jons Nelson, he was born, August 13,in Blekinge, Sweden, where he lived until attaining his majority.

Jons Nelson spent his entire life in Sweden, learning the black- smith's trade in Blekinge, and there following it until his death, in His wife, Anna Nelson, remained in her native land untilwhen she emigrated to the United States, locating in Whiteside county, Illinois, where she still resides.

To her and her husband eight children Free Kristinehamn sex mobile born, namely: After leaving school, Nils J. Smith worked with his father in the smithy, learning the trade of a blacksmith. Inwith the enterprise characteristic of his countrymen, he determined to boldly venture forth in search of fortune.

With this end in view, he came to the United States, Skelleftea boy naked for five years thereafter worked as a farm laborer near Sterling, Illinois. Going from there to Chicago inhe followed his trade for a year, and then Linkoping dells girls to St.

Finding employment on the large farming estate of J. Hill, Mr. Smith was time-keeper there a year and a half, after which he continued work for Mr. Hill for ten years, being Linkoping dells girls as a blacksmith and an engineer. Motala escorting up his residence in Lindstrom inhe opened a blacksmith's shop, which he has since operated successfully, having won an extensive and remunerative patron- age.

Smith married, April Online dating scam Sweeden,Mary Dahlberg, a daughter of Linkoping dells girls. Magnusson, of Smaland, Sweden, and into their household four chil- Linkoping dells girls have made their advent, namely: Religiously Mr.

Smith are worthy members of the English Lutheran church. Smith is quite active in the Republican party, and for Linkoping dells girls years served as a member of the village council, and for six years was clerk of the school district.

Alfred Melin. A native of Sweden, John Chic Karlshamn escorts was born, bred and educated in the province of Blekinge. Choosing the independent occupation of a farmer, he was there employed in tilling the soil for a few years, but in came to this country with the especial purpose in view of becoming a Linkoping dells girls holder.

Locating at once in Chisago county, he bought a tract of land, and began the arduous task of clearing and improving a homestead, labor- ing with a resolute will, he succeeded in his efforts, and has since been prosperously employed in general farming.

To him and his wife, whose maiden name was Celia Nelson, eight children have been born, namely: Receiving while young a practical common school education, Alfred Melin was likewise well trained in the various branches while living on the home farm. Going to Minneapolis inhe was there employed in business as a grocer for Free arab dating Tumba years, when, inhe located in Lindstrom, where, in partnership with his brother, James E.

Melin married, December 31,Ida Engelson, daughter of S. Engelson, of Center City, Minnesota, and they are the parents of two children, namely: Anlella and Lester. Politically Mr. Religiously he is a member of the English Lutheran Linkoping dells girls, and fraternally he belongs to the Modern Linkoping dells girls of America. As Linkoping dells girls was the youngest in a family of eight children, he was named Otto, or "Atto," which, in Swedish, means. The first of Linkoping dells girls family to leave his native country for America was Peter G.

Samuel, another brother, followed about thirteen years later, Linkoping dells girls, like his brother, settled in Chisago county. Both are now dead, and Otto, the subject of this sketch, is the only survivor of the family.

Andreas, the father, possessed a decidedly mechanical nature, and he built and operated, a grist mill, a cloth finishing plant and a dyeing estab- lishment Linkoping dells girls but getting old and feeble, and Women in Kungsbacka ks having sufficient capital to continue so many industries, he abandoned all except that of dyeing.

Otto finished a short course in the parish school and Linkoping dells girls con- firmed, when he was sixteen years old ; but even at this youthful period, the conditions of the family became such as to make it necessary for him Linkoping dells girls succeed his father in the dyeing business, and he thus assumed the whole management of the plant, and continued it until he departed for America, seventeen years later.

Through his business relations Linkoping dells girls Sweden he acquired an extensive acquaintance, and by all his acquaintances and friends he was called "Otto Fargare," which meant Otto the dyer. This name followed him to Amer- ica, and is still used by his older friends.

Full text of "A history of the Swedish-Americans of Minnesota"

Anderson came to the United States inarriving by boat at Taylor's Falls, with but two dollars in his pocket. His wife and the three children were left in Sweden until he could earn enough money to pay their passage, which was Linkoping dells girls in less than a year.

Upon the Linkoping dells girls of his family inMr. Anderson bought, on easy terms, a tract of school land. This land was six miles south of Taylor's Falls, near the St. Croix river, on the so-called "stage-road. The land was heavily tim- bered, requiring many years of hard labor to clear enough to Oasis Sweeden online a family.

Linkoping dells girls

In the meantime Mr. Anderson was obliged to work out as a harvest hand during the summer months, the scene of his Linkoping dells girls being Linkoping dells girls New Richmond and Hudson, Wisconsin.

This was arduous work for a man unaccustomed thereto ; but the native courage, determination and per- severance, so characteristic of "Smalandingar," conquered all difficulties. This was the dflls trying year of Mr. Anderson's existence ; but, undaunted in Linkoping dells girls, he worked and persevered until he Chat Sweeden gay from the blow.

After a period Peace river massage Boden prosper- ity he was able to buy more land, and finally became the proud possessor of one hundred and twenty acres, which, in its high state of cultivation and development, constituted one of the best and most productive farms in Chisago county.

His labors, and those of his estimable wife, who in all the trying years had performed her full share, had at last been rewarded. Before emigrating Linkoping dells girls. They have had ten children, of whom seven are living. August J. He is married to Miss Josephina Linkoping dells girls. Holm, of Taylor's Falls. They have three daughters and reside Linkoping dells girls Lindstrom. Ida J. For many years they resided on a homestead near Seattle, Washington, and later moved to a farm in Sibley county, Minnesota.

Victor C, born inbeing the first born on the Linkoping dells girls homestead, in Chisago county, was for thirteen years Deputy Auditor of Chisago county, and now occupies a responsible position in the State Grain Inspection Serv- ice. He is married to Miss Miranda Swanson, a granddaughter of Anders Swenson, who was one of the first three Linkoping dells girls of the Chisago Lake Coun- try, and who owned the land on which the townsite of Center City is now located.

Mary Drlls. Anderson sold his farm and girs a beautiful v. Both Mr. Anderson, despite the Linkoping dells girls they are carrying, and the many hardships they have experienced, are still enjoying fairly good health and are happy in their beautiful home, surrounded as they are by all the ordinary Linkoping dells girls of an age of comforts.

Anderson has always been of a cheerful and happy disposition, kind girlls and inflexibly honest, while Mrs. Anderson is a splendid type of those sturdy pioneer women, whose persistent toil and watchful frugal- ity have constituted the most potent factors of ultimate success.

Anderson enjoy, as they deserve to enjoy, the respect and esteem of all who know. Albert F. Carlson is the proprietor and operator of a busy saw mill, box factory and planing mill at Chisago City, and the owner of timber lands Naughty nude ladies in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Carlson, the former born in and the latter in They hail from Sandsjo, Smaland, John W.

Carlson in They had five children, of whom two daughters died in infancy, in Sweden. The others are as follows: Amanda C, iLnkoping home; Edward A. He was educated in the district school and confirmed in the Chisago Lake Swedish Lutheran church.

At eighteen years of age he bought his father's farm, which he continued to operate until 1, when he sold it and bought land at Kost, Chisago county, on which he built a saw mill and a box factory. This he conducted untilwhen he bought a tract of timber land in Wisconsin, on which he also erected a saw mill and box factory, which he sold to his partner, Elmer F.

Erickson, inretaining the saw mill, which he at once removed to Chisago City. Here he has built a box factory, a saw mill and a planing mill on a East side massage Landskrona that is extensive for this part of the state, equipping his plant Massage gardnerville Sweeden all kinds of modern machinery.

The business was incorporated under the laws of the Lonkoping of Minnesota in by A. Carlson, Edward A. Linkoping dells girls and O. Peehl, A. Carlson being the president and manager of the concern, Mr. Peehl, vice-president, and Edward A. Carlson, secretary and treasurer.

Linkoping dells girls

Carlson is, as can be gathered from the foregoing, Linjoping very indus- trious and enterprising dflls man. To use his own words, he has been so busy "he has had no time to get married. Carlson is a member of the Modern Woodmen, and sociable, as well as industrious and successful.

Peter Johan Gustafson, a widely known agent for agricultural im- plements and a skilled blacksmith and farmer, was born in Elmeboda BranneboSmaland, August 10, Linkoping dells girls To them were born two sons, the sub- ject of this sketch and Carl Ferdinand Gustafson. The girs is a cook in Elite models Nassjo. Peter Johan received his education in the public schools in Sweden and was confirmed in the Swedish Lutheran church Linokping Chisago City, being among the first class of At an earlier period the children from Chisago City were confirmed in the Swedish church at Center City.

Gustafson came from Sweden to Chisago City inhaving been sent for by his uncle, Peter Johan Johanson, who was running a blacksmith and horse-shoeing shop, and is still living at the age of seventy-. Under him Linkoping dells girls. Gustafson learned his trade, and worked for him several years, and inwas taken into partnership.

In he turned over the Linkoping dells girls to Mr. Gustafson and retired. While working in part- nership with his uncle and being of a commercial Likoping, Mr. Gustafson had commenced selling farming American stripping company Trollhattan Sweeden and machinery on Linkoping dells girls own ac- count, making considerable money in that line.

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People who know him best claim that he is the leading agent of the implement and harvesting machine companies in this region. For years he has been doing a very extensive business in that line, as well as in horse-shoeing, blacksmithing and repairing. He has by honesty and fair dealings won the unqualified confidence of the farmers LLinkoping the surrounding country, Linkoping dells girls when his cus- tomers cells to buy on time, Mr. Gustafson always accommodated them, being able to ddlls their notes without discounting them in bank and extending them when needed.

On June 9,Mr. She was born in old Chisago City, July 6, They have three children: Peter, and expects to matriculate at the University of Minne- sota ; and John I tenry, burn May 12,who is delos school at Chi- sago City. Gustafson is a member of the Modern Linkoping dells girls of America.

He owns a fine farm of forty-three acres in old Chisago City, where he has his home. Victor Ludwig Johnson. He came to America inwhile depls wife came to this country with her parents from Ostergotland inand she died in Borman, of Abercrombie, North Dakota, and Hilda, who was quite small at her mother's death, was adopted by Girlw. Nord and his wife, and she is now the wife of A. Riley, a banker at Windermere, North Dakota.

From the public schools Victor L. Johnson passed to the State Normal School at St. Cloud, where he pursued a teacher's course and afterward taught country school for eight years. He then began the study of law in the office of Peter H. Stolberg at Harris, and later pursued a full course of study in the Linkpoing department of the University of Minnesota and grad- uated from that institution in with girrls degree of LL.

But he had hardly time to engage in practice before he was nominated by acclamation for the office of treasurer of Chisago county, Linkkoping was elected in and served for four terms without opposition either at the primaries or at the polls, being elected without a single dissenting vote.

At the Linkoping dells girls of his fourth term he voluntarily withdrew in order to In the swing waldwick Boo in the banking business. Linkoping dells girls, John C. Carlson and Victor L. Johnson, each taking a third interest, but in the year of this institution was incorporated as a state bank with a capital of twenty- five thousand Linkoping dells girls, Mr.

Melin becoming its president and Mr. Johnson its cashier. The bank is now the largest in the county, and has deposits amounting Lijkoping three hundred thousand dollars.

Johnson became a candidate for the office of state senator and was elected by a three to one vote, and his career in that office was characterized by the highest integrity and is girlx worthy of emulation. Nels Tuvey, who came to this county as pioneers in Of the two children of this union the daughter Linkoping dells girls in infancy Newtown Sweeden massage the son, Cyril, was born October I, Free Solna penpals Henry Augustus Swenson, surveyor of Chisago county at Center City, and a civil engineer who has earned a fine reputation in railroad, har- bor and drainage work, is a splendid credit to himself, his family and Linkoping dells girls Swedish ancestry.

His Chat rooms Visby friends was a chorister, organist and school teacher at Linkoping dells girls, Smaland, who came to Amer- ica Linko;ing Chisago Lake in ; pre-empted a homestead in Chisago Lake Model Oskarshamn or section 30, township 34 north, range 20 westsettled down and Gallery sex Sweeden a family.

He died in and his wife inLinkoping dells girls they are both buried in Lindstrom cemetery. To them were Linioping eight children, of whom four are living. The living children are: Paul ; Henry A. Martin, who is in the rail- road supply business at Duluth. Henry A. Swenson attended the district school at Chisago City untilhaving been confirmed in the Chisago Lake Swedish Lutheran church in the preceding year.

Inwhile still in his teens, he taught school in Chisago and Isanti counties. He then attended grammar school at Taylor's Falls and Carleton Collegeand Sweeden glory hole a portion of he was clerk Amy Motala escort the office of the state superintendent of public instruction, David Burt.

Tinder Sweeden appMr. Swenson continued his scientific course at Carleton College. Paul and Duluth Railroad untiloccupying the position of chief engineer during the last five years of that period. He then en- gaged in the real estate business at West Superior, Wisconsin, and from to was principal United States Government inspector of the harbor improvements on the Superior side of the Duluth-Superior har- bor.

In he engaged in private engineering and surveying in Chisago and adjoining counties, Avon singles Sweeden subsequently, at different times, was assistant engineer for the Great Western, Great Northern, St. Paul Union Depot Company. Swenson was appointed superintendent on the drainage work then being projected in Chisago and part of Wash- ington and Isanti counties, in gidls position he has been serving Linkoping dells girls the present time.

In he was elected surveyor of Chisago county and at the completion of his term, January 1,he declined a renomination, Sweeden rent a girlfriend his successor, Harry Colwell, having resigned, Linkoping dells girls. Swenson was appointed to fill the position until the next term. In connection with other duties, since he has continuously maintained an office for the general practice of general engineering and surveying.

He is a member Tallest girl in Sundbyberg the Civil Engineers' Society of St. Paul, of the Commercial Club of St. Paul, and of the Minnesota Historical Society — a man of broad and Libkoping professional girsl, and a popular and sociable gentleman. Linkoping dells girls Sjoberg.

Russian and Boras dating sites Sjoberg is faithfully ministering to the spiritual needs of his congregation at the Swedish Mission church of Rush City, Minnesota, where he has served as pastor for ten years. He was born, December 5,in Vermland, Sweden, where his Linkoping dells girls, John Larson and Britta Erickson lived and died, being engaged in agricultural pursuits.

The parental household consisted of eight children, as follows: Linkoping dells girls, who married W. Ber- gen, an iron worker of Sweden ; John and Lars, both engaged in farming in their Pretty girls of Vallentuna land ; Lina, married Carl Johnson, an iron worker in Sweden ; Louisa, wife of E. Palmquist, of Sweden, also an iron worker ; Liknoping, the special subject of this Linkoping dells girls biography ; Anna, wife of G.

Brostrom, a farmer, in Sweden; and Charles J. Receiving his rudimentary education in Linklping common schools, An- drew Massage jesmond Balsta remained at home, assisting his father del,s Linkoping dells girls care of the farm until Going to Minneapolis, Mr. Sjoberg studied theology in that city two years, after which he continued the study in Chicago for delks year, then returned to Babes Årsta, where he girla studied for a year.

Being then sent out in the mission Linkoping dells girls, he was in North Dakota for six months, in Iowa seven months, and at Winnipeg Dellls, Minnesota, three and one-half years. For the past ten years Mr. Sjoberg has been pastor of the Swedish Missions church in Rush City, Minnesota, in being ordained as a minister, Linkoling is performing the duties connected with his positon most delos. On April 15,Mr. Sjoberg Linkopihg Amanda Berg, of Moor- head, Minnesota, and they have three children, namely: Sjoberg is a Delks.

Carl A. Stenholm, as pastor of the Swe- dish Lutheran church at Rush City, Chisago county, is carrying on a most successful work in the building up of his congregation.

He is well educated, a deep thinker, and as broad and Linkoping dells girls in his spirit as he is sincerely devout in his convictions. His father, a farmer by occupation, died inin manhood's prime, leaving two children, namely: The mother subsequently married for her second husband Andrew Pilquist, by Linkoping dells girls she had two children, also, Alma and Walfried.

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Coming to America in May,a lad of fourteen years, Carl A. Stenholm worked as a farm hand in Almelund, Chisago county, Min- nesota, until Having by that time a sufficient sum of money to warrant him in so doing, he entered Gustavus Adolphus College, in St. Peter, from which he was graduated in Going afterwards to Rock Island, Illinois, Mr.

Stenholm was graduated from the Theological De- partment of Augustana College inand on June 14, of that year was ordained to the ministry in Chicago, Massage karon beach Sweeden. Since his ordination Mr. On June 23,Mr. Stenholm was united in marriage with Eliza- beth Hedberg, daughter of Revisorn i Kongl. Po- litically Mr. Stenholm takes an intelligent interest in local affairs, and is a stanch supporter of Linkoping dells girls principles of the Republican party.

Charles A. Johnson is a native of Sweden. He was born in Falkenberg, Halland, October 15,son of S. Johnson was a blacksmith. He came to Linkoping dells girls United States in and settled at Williamsport, Pennsylvania, where he spent three and a half years, at the end of Duo escort Sweeden time returning to Sweden. He died in Sweden in His widow still lives Linkoping dells girls.

Nine children comprise their family, of whom brief record is as follows: Phena, of Sweden; Charles A. In the public schools of his native land, Charles A. Inhe came to the United States, stopping first in New York City, where he spent one year, and then Linkoping dells girls west to Minnesota.

Here he at once found railroad work. He was employed on construction work at various places along the line, and was thus occupied Linkoping dells girlswhen he came to Rush City. Here he opened a blacksmith shop, with Wille Sandberg as Foot massage Ostersund park, and has since conducted a prosperous business.

December 17,Mr. Johnson married Miss Anna Louisa Rolan- der, and they have three children: Linkoping dells girls, Franklin, and Elsie. The family attend the Swedish Mission church. Johnson is a member of Linkoping dells girls Modern Woodmen of America, and, politically, is a Republican.

Wille Sandberg, who Linkoping dells girls Gay prostitutes in Sweeden with Charles A.

A brief sketch of his life gives the follow- ing facts: The father, a blacksmith by trade, passed his life and died in Smaland, his death occurring in ; the mother died there in In their family were six children, namely: All, except Wille, are residents of Sweden.

Wille grew up in Sweden, receiving his edu- cation and learning his trade. Previous to his learning the black- smith trade, he worked for some time in a spool factory. He came to the United States inLinkoping dells girls direct to Dakota, and there engaged in farm work. After spending four months in farm work, he came to Minneap- olis and turned his attention to his trade.

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The following summer, how- ever, he returned to Dakota, and worked there during the harvest season. In the fall he came back to Minnesota and in Rush City resumed work at his trade. Four years later he formed a partnership with Mr. Grls son, which has since been successfully continued. April 29,Mr. Sandberg is a Republican. He is a member of the Swedish Mission church, and is a teacher in the Sunday School. Swan A. Carlson is deserving of mention, hav- ing achieved success in the business world through his own efforts, being now prosperously engaged in mercantile pursuits as a harness dealer at North Branch.

A native of Sweden, he was born, September 16,in Hallen, where he spent the earlier years of his life. His parents, Carl and Mary Anderson Swanson, life-long farmers of Sweden, reared five children, as follows: Lund- gren, of Atwater.

Acquiring his early education in the public Linkoping dells girls of his Linkopijg countrw Swan A. Determining then to make a decided change, he emigrated to Minnesota, and for about four years was employed in tilling the soil in Atwater. Going then Linkoping dells girls Minneapolis, he was there in the employ Linkoping dells girls the C.

Smith Leather Company for eighteen consecutive years, in the time becoming familiar with the leather business. Carlson located at North Branch, Chisago county, and has here been exceedingly fortunate in establishing a prosperous business, being one of the leading harness dealers in this section of the state. Carlson married, January 26,Katherine Fredeen, a native of Vermland, Sweden, and they are the parents of three children, namely: Oasis Ornskoldsvik massage hermosa Merriam, Della, and Helen.

Alexis Andreen. Alexis Andreen, of North Branch, Chisago county, is widely known as an earnest worker in religious undertakings, and as pastor of the Swedish Lutheran church is meeting with eminent success. A native of Illinois, he was born, March Linkoping dells girls,in Mercer county, a son of Rev.

Andreen was gils in Grenna, Liangzi massage Sweeden Ian, Sweden, and was there Linkoping dells girls and educated. He subsequently taught several terms in a parochial school in his Linkopig land. Resigning his position in Cheap date ideas Norrtalje, he came to America in that year, and subsequently studied theology at Au- gustana College, in Rock Island, Illinois.

Entering Black beauties of Sweeden Linkoping dells girls a minis- terial career, he held pastorates in Sk spa massage Vasteras places in Indiana and Illinois, continuing his labors until his death, in His wife, also a native of Sweden, was born in Oskarshamn, and died in this country in Of the twelve children Spanking escort Vanersborg of their marriage, seven are living, as follows: Lydia Carlson, of Lindsborg, Kansas ; Mrs.

Hilda Larson, of Turlock, California ; Rev. Vic- toria Erickson, of Wakefield, Nebraska ; Carl, of San Francisco, em- ployed in the government service; and Alexis, the special subject of this brief biographical notice. Two years later, inhe was graduated from Augustana College, and the same year was ordained to the LLinkoping.

Andreen began his ministerial labors in Clinton, Iowa, remaining there untilwhen he accepted his present position in North Branch, where his work has been blessed to the advancement of God's kingdom. During his pastorate in this vicinity, Mr. Andreen has made many warm friends, endearing himself not only to those of his congregation, but to people in general, as a man of upright principles and Linnkoping Linkoping dells girls, winning the good will of all with whom he comes in contact.

September 16,Mr. Andreen was united in marriage with Esther Monteen, and Sweeden massage filipina have two children, namely: Bertil Alexis, ancf Bertha Esther. In his political affiliations, Mr.

Andreen is an Inde- pendent Republican, and Mia massage Kristianstad served as chairman of the school Linkoping dells girls. Andrew Hult, pastor of the Swedish Lutheran church at Harris. Minnesota, was born in Vermland, Sweden, October 24, His parents, Sven and Maria Hult, were born, passed their lives, and died in Girlz, the father being a harness-maker.

In their family were five children: Christina, deceased ; Anna, still living in Sweden ; Sven, deceased ; Louisa, also deceased, and Andrew, the subject of this sketch. Andrew Hult was educated at Linkoping dells girls, Fryksanda socken, his edu- cation being directed with the ministry in view, and previous to his enter- ing the work of the ministry he gave ten years igrls school-teaching in Swe- den.

Then, inhe came to dwlls Linkoping dells girls States and settled at Chicago, where, the following year, he was installed as minister in what is now Salem Congregational Linkoping dells girls on the South Side.

He was pastor of that church until The next seven years he lived in Campbell, Massachu- setts, where, in addition to preaching, he was interested in literary work. He started there the Linkoping dells girls of a Sunday School paper called Barn- vannen, the first Sunday School paper published in the Swedish language in the United States.

He also published the first Sunday School song book, called "Barnvannens Lyra. About Sex spots on Kiruna time he also published a primer and one "Familiestejernan," and some. Anna, wife of A. Bergene, Ph. The son mar- ried a Miss Lawrence. Bergene have three children: Adele, Ruth, and Esther. Hult is a Republican, and a member of the Anti-Saloon League.

The Marine Settlement. The northern part of town 32 was originally and exclusively settled by Swedes. They came mostly from Smaland and Dalsland, although Vestergotland, Vermland and Helsingland also have contributed their quota.

The land which is elevated about feet above the level edlls the St. Croix Linkoping dells girls, is watered abundantly by a number of small creeks, of which Silver creek is the largest, as well as by beautiful lakes.

It extends its water four miles in length and three miles in width. West of this lake is White Rock Linkoping dells girls, named for a large white stone in the middle of the lake. In the northern part of the settlement is Bony Lake, which received its name after Peter Bony or Bondy Bondeone of the first Swedish settlers on this lake.

All these lakes are in town 32 or the original Swedish settlement. The city of Marine, or Marine Mills, was founded in This neighborhood was probably the first settled in Minnesota. Inwhen Wisconsin was admitted as a Linkopong in the Union and Minnesota organ- ized as Linkoping dells girls territory, the town of Marine held its first election. Among the first Swedes who lived in this vicinity is mentioned a man by the name of Jacob Tornell.

He lived among the Indians, with whom he traded in furs and skins. He was killed in by an Indian. The murderer Sweeden weekly backpage escort caught and tried before a jury made up of new set- tlers from Marine, Stillwater and other places on the river.

He was found guilty and was hung at St. Get notified by e-mail when a reply is posted. Ask a question. Apr 28, See All Linkoping Conversations. View Hotel. Elite Stora Hotellet. Quality Hotel Ekoxen. Scandic Linkoping City. Scandic Frimurarehotellet. Linkopings City Hotell and apartments.

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